Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) refers to a set of recurring symptoms arising during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, 7-14 days before menses. Irritability, headaches, fatigue, bloating, water retention, breast tenderness, joint pain, acne, depression, nausea, tension, food cravings, pelvic cramping, anxiety, and low sex drive are some of the distressing symptoms that regularly plague women who suffer from PMS.

Although as many as four out of every 10 fertile women experience these symptoms either moderately or severely, until recently these women were afforded little help from conventional medicine.1,2 Based on their own experiences, however, many women have intuitively come to understand the importance of proper exercise, healthy diet, and reduction of stress in lessening the severity of their symptoms.

Clinical studies have uncovered a wide range of physiological imbalances that are believed to trigger or contribute to PMS symptoms. These include female sex hormone imbalances, nutritional deficiencies, imbalances in fatty acid metabolism, yeast overgrowth, thyroid dysfunction, glucose/insulin dysregulation, and disruptions of the body's natural circadian rhythms.

Because of its diverse etiologies, and because symptoms are so varied among women, some researchers have attempted to categorize PMS into different types, each with its own specific causal factors. These classifications are not necessarily consistent among experts, however, and perhaps the wisest approach is to realize that a number of functional imbalances--especially in conjunction with each other--may trigger or exacerbate PMS in its different forms, as well as create other health problems. However, detecting these imbalances early can allow women to alleviate some symptoms of PMS. For more information click on the links below:

PMS and Female Sex Hormones: The symptoms of PMS correlate with specific menstrual cycle changes modulated by the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.

PMS and Essential Fatty Acids: Fatty acid imbalances have been linked to many symptoms of PMS including fluid retention and depression.

PMS and Adrenal Stress Hormones: Physical or emotional stress may greatly exacerbate PMS.

PMS and Candida Syndrome: Some researchers have proposed that PMS develops when Candida albicans overgrowth impairs the immune system.

PMS and Melatonin Imbalances: PMS can disrupt the body's natural circadian rhythm and interfere with a healthy sleep cycle.

PMS and Elemental Imbalances:Recent studies have linked mineral deficiencies of calcium and magnesium with the development of PMS.

PMS and Amino Acids: Vitamin B deficiency or tryptophan imbalances may trigger PMS irritability and depression.

Teresa Rispoli has her Ph.D. in Nutrition, is a licensed Acupuncturist and clinical researcher. She has been in practice for well over 25 years. It is through her clinical practice that she has gained insights into chronic health conditions.
If you are suffering from unexplained symptoms that come and go you owe it to yourself to find out why. Find out today call for a Nutritional Consultation with Dr. Rispoli.

Your happiness is a reflection of your health call today For an appointment, contact her office at (800) 956-7083 or (818) 707-3125.

We also offer Functional Laboratory tests that can be done through the mail in the privacy of your home to help determine why you are having these symptoms. For more information on these click on lab tests.

1 Lurie S, Borenstein R. The premenstrual syndrome. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1990;45(4):220-8.
2 Seippel L, Backstrom T. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 1998;83(6):1988-1993.